Biochemistry is the branch of science concerned with the study of chemical and biological processes in living organisms. Mostly this scientific discipline deals with the structure, interaction and functions of Biomolecules such as
- Nucleic acids
Biochemistry or biological chemistry mainly focus on how biomolecules bring about processes that occur within cells which are greatly related to the study of the whole organisms. Tesla scans and healthcare perform various biochemistry tests in body fluid samples such as blood, urine, plasma/serum and other body fluids. The tests conducted in biochemistry lab are liver function test, magnesium test, calcium test, total protein test, albumin test, bilirubin test and much more.
Liver Function Tests
Liver function tests are a combination of blood tests that measure bilirubin, enzymes and protein levels in your blood. These tests are often used for diagnosing and monitoring liver diseases as well as monitor the side effects caused by certain medicines.
The test involves a simple blood draw in our biochemistry lab. If more than one liver function results are abnormal, then it indicates that your liver is not functioning properly or damaged. Liver damage can be due to-
- Liver cancer
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
Total Protein Test
The test measures the level of albumin and globulin, the two different types of protein, as well as the ratio of albumin and globulin, known as A/G ratio. The test is ordered if you experience-
- Edema( swelling as a result of excess fluid buildup in tissues)
- Kidney or liver disease symptoms
- Unexplained weight loss
High total protein can be a sign of
- Bone marrow disorders
- Infections or inflammation(Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C)
Low total protein can be a sign of
- Liver or kidney disorder
- Malabsorption conditions
- Inflammatory conditions
The test measures the level of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is produced during the breakdown of Red blood cells(RBC). This test is often used to
- Diagnose and monitor liver diseases
- Detect an increased rate of destruction of RBC
- Evaluate drug toxicity
- Investigate Jaundice
The bilirubin test results are indicated as total, direct and indirect bilirubin. For those below 18, normal test results for total bilirubin are 1mg/dL, and for adults, it is 1.2mg/dL. The normal value of direct bilirubin is 0.3mg/dL, and all these results may vary from one biochemistry lab to that of another. Low bilirubin levels are not a concern, but elevated bilirubin level can be a sign of liver disease or damage.
Magnesium is a mineral, vital for various important functions in our body. This blood test checks the level of magnesium in the blood, and to ascertain the cause of abnormal levels of Magnesium, Potassium and Calcium. Your doctor may order a magnesium test if you experience symptoms of high or low levels of magnesium. ‘
Higher than normal magnesium level may indicate-
- Kidney diseases
- Diabetic ketoacidosis (A serious complication that mainly affects diabetic people)
- Addison disease(An adrenal gland disorder)
Calcium test is often used to screen for, monitor and most importantly, diagnose a broad range of medical conditions, by measuring the level of Calcium in your blood. Calcium is a mineral, vital for the proper functioning of the heart, nerves and muscles. During a calcium test, a healthcare professional at our biochemistry lab will draw blood by inserting a needle in your arm. Your doctor may order a calcium test when you have-
- Kidney disease
- Symptoms associated with a low level of Calcium
- Symptoms associated with a high level of Calcium
- Diseases associated with an abnormal level of Calcium
Higher than normal calcium level can be a sign of-
- Certain types of cancer
- Hyperparathyroidism( a condition in which parathyroid glands secrete too much parathyroid hormone in the blood)
- Paget’s disease( a medical condition characterised by deformity and cellular remodelling of bones)
Uric Acid Test
Uric acid is a waste product produced during the normal breakdown of purines, a chemical found in your cells. The test measures the uric acid level in your urine or blood. This test is often used to
- Diagnose gout( a condition in which the body produces a high amount of uric acid in the blood)
- Ascertain the reason for recurring kidney stone
- Monitor the level of uric acid in those who are undergoing cancer treatment
This test can either be done as a urine test or blood test. For the blood test, the blood sample will be taken by our healthcare professional in our biochemistry lab, whereas for the urine test, urine will be collected over a 24 hour period. In a blood test, elevated uric acid levels may indicate-
- Kidney disease
- Preeclampsia( a condition characterised by high BP in pregnant women)
- Side effects as a result of cancer treatment
In a urine test, high uric acid levels may indicate-
- Multiple myeloma (cancer that affects plasma cells)
- Leukaemia (cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood)
Lipid is a fat, which is the source of energy for our body. Lipid test or Lipid panel or cholesterol panel is a set of tests that measures lipid levels in the blood.
Lipid profile test measures the level of different types of lipids such as LDL, HDL, Triglycerides and total cholesterol in the blood.
The test is used to assess your risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia symptoms and also to monitor the treatment that you have undergone or a diet control programme, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of drug therapy.
If your lipid test results are outside normal level, then you’re at higher risk of developing heart diseases, atherosclerosis or stroke. In case if you have abnormal test results, then you need to take a blood glucose test or thyroid test, to check whether you have diabetes or underactive thyroid.
Phosphate test is generally carried out to check the levels of phosphorus, a mineral, in your blood. The main function of this mineral is the formation of teeth and bones. Liver, kidney and some bone diseases cause higher than normal levels of phosphorus. For adults, the normal phosphorus value ranges from 2.8 to 4.5 mg/dL, whereas for children, it is 4.0 to 7.0mg/dL. These values may slightly vary from one biochemistry lab to another.
A higher than normal phosphorus level may indicate-
- Liver disease
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Kidney failure
A lower than normal phosphorus level may indicate-
- Very poor nutrition
- Primary hyperparathyroidism
Our liver produces a protein, known as albumin. This test is often used to measure the level of albumin in your blood. Albumin test is ordered if you experience symptoms associated with kidney or liver diseases.
Common symptoms of liver diseases are-
- Jaundice (buildup of bilirubin in the blood whereby the skin and body parts turn yellow)
- Decreased appetite
- Weight loss
Common symptoms of kidney diseases are-
- Swelling around thighs, face and abdomen
- Bloody or foamy urine
- Frequent urination
Lower than normal albumin levels can be a sign of-
- Kidney disease
- Liver disease
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Thyroid disease
Higher than normal albumin levels can be a sign of severe diarrhoea or dehydration.
Fasting Blood Sugar Test
This test is often used to measure the blood glucose level in your blood. The FBS test is ordered if your doctor suspects that you have abnormal blood glucose level. An FBS test requires 12 hours fast and typically done in the morning. Elevated blood glucose levels indicate insulin resistance( a condition in which the body is unable to handle sugar) and diabetes. A fasting blood glucose level below 100mg/dL is considered normal. A fasting blood glucose level between 110-125mg/dL indicates prediabetes( not high enough to be diabetes). More than 126mg/dL indicates diabetes.
We make use of a broad range of equipment ranging from simple and basic ones to modern and sophisticated systems. Tesla Scans has a team of experienced and qualified technologists and technicians who can come up with the most accurate test results.