What are Electrolytes?
The electrolyte is the generic term for minerals found in our body fluids such as blood, urine and sweat. Electrolytes carry an electric charge- either positive or negative.
Electrolytes generally found in our body are:
These electrically charged ions have a crucial role in various bodily functions, such as:
- The functioning of the nervous system
- The operation of muscles and heart
- Help maintain fluid balance
- Help regulate internal pH
- Help regulate enzymatic functions
- Regulates osmotic pressure
The electrolyte level in our body can become too low or too high, that leads to electrolyte imbalance, due to too little or too much consumption and excretion of electrolytes.
Conditions associated with electrolyte imbalance are:
- Congestive heart failure (A medical condition where the heart is unable to pump blood sufficiently around the body)
- Kidney diseases
- Dehydration and overhydration( a condition that occurs as a result of too much water intake)
- Respiratory Alkalosis and acidosis( a condition where the pH of blood is out of balance)
- Gastrointestinal diseases
- Bone disorders
Low electrolyte levels are normally indicated with the prefix “Hypo” and high levels with “Hyper”. An electrolyte analyser is required for the diagnosis and treatment of conditions associated with electrolyte imbalance.
This fully automated system measures the level of electrolytes, such as Sodium, potassium, chloride, etc., present in body fluids such as plasma, serum, blood, and urine. Most electrolyte analysers also measure the level of calcium, an essential electrolyte in the body, where it measures the concentration of total calcium, ionised calcium or both.
Analysis of electrolytes through Electrolyte Analyser
Sodium: Diagnosis and treatment of
- Addison’s disease(a condition in which adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones)
- Aldosteronism( a condition characterised by the secretion of aldosterone in excessive amount)
- Adrenal hypertension
- Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
Potassium: Diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in which blood pressure is either low or high.
Chloride: Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic acidosis( a fatal diabetic complication) and cystic fibrosis( a genetic disease that affects the digestive system and lungs)
Calcium: Diagnosis and treatment of-
- Chronal renal disease
- Tetany( a condition characterised by contraction of hands, feets accompanied by cramps)
- Parathyroid disease
- Bone diseases
Detection Range of Electrolyte Analysers
Sodium- 40 to 200 millimoles per litre (mmol/L) for blood and 3 to 300mmol/L for urine
Potassium- 1.7 to 75 mmol/L for blood and 5 to 120 mmol/L for urine
Chloride: 50 to 200mmol/L for blood and 15 to 300 mmol/L for urine
Calcium 0.3 to 5.0 mmol/L for blood
Methods of Analysis
- Flame Emission Photometry- Electrolytes such as Lithium, Sodium and potassium can be measured using Flame emission Photometry. FEP offers an indirect measurement.
- Ion Selective Electrode- ISE provides direct measurement. Nearly all Electrolyte analysers make use of this technology to measure electrolytes.
Components of Electrolyte Analyser
- Peristaltic pump
- Electrode module
- Waste chamber
- Sample probe
Our lab is equipped with fully automated, ultra-modern electrolyte analysers. We offer quality, state-of-the-art laboratory testing, availing which you can prevent, diagnose and manage different medical conditions. What makes us distinct from the rest is our scrupulously monitored system, highly adept and experienced staff members and choice of the best technology for electrolyte analysis. We emphasise on the accuracy and speed of every test that we undertake.